The first process in ethical hacking is to gather information and knowledge about the target computer or network system. The first phase of ethical hacking, Reconnaissance, is a set of processes and techniques such as Footprinting, Scanning & Enumeration, which are used for gathering and collecting information about the target computer or network system.
Steps to follow by the ethical hacker in the process of Reconnaissance :
In the process of Reconnaissance, the information is gathered by the ethical hacker about the target system by following some of the steps like:
Gather initial information.
Determine the network range.
Identify active machines.
Discover open ports and access points.
Fingerprint the operating system.
Uncover services on ports.
Map the network.
Different parts of Reconnaissance :
The process of Reconnaissance takes place in two parts − Active Reconnaissance and Passive Reconnaissance.
Active Reconnaissance - In Active Reconnaissance, information is gained by directly interacting with the computer system. The information thus gained is accurate and relevant. Due to direct interaction, Active Reconnaissance is associated with high risk of getting detected, if accessed without permission. If detected severe actions are taken and the subsequent activities are trailed.
Passive Reconnaissance - In Passive Reconnaissance, the ethical hacker will not be connected to the computer system directly. To gather essential information without interacting with the target system, Passive Reconnaissance is used.