## Operators In Php

### PHP - Operators :

Operators are used to manipulate or perform operations on variables and values. There are many operators used in PHP, so we have separated them into the following categories to make it easier to learn them all.

- Combination Arithmetic & Assignment Operators

### Assignment Operators :

Assignment operators are used to set a variable equal to a value or set a variable to another variable's value. Such an assignment of value is done with the "=", or equal character.

**Example :**

Now both $my_var and $another_var contain the value 4. Assignments can also be used in conjunction with arithmetic operators.

### Arithmetic Operators :

Operator |
Name |
Example |

+ |
Addition |
2 + 4 |

- |
Subtraction |
6 - 2 |

* |
Multiplication |
5 * 3 |

/ |
Division |
15 / 3 |

% |
Modulus |
43 % 10 |

CODE/PROGRAM/EXAMPLE

//PHP Code:
$addition = 2 + 4;
$subtraction = 6 - 2;
$multiplication = 5 * 3;
$division = 15 / 3;
$modulus = 5 % 2;
echo "Perform addition: 2 + 4 = ".$addition."<br />";
echo "Perform subtraction: 6 - 2 = ".$subtraction."<br />";
echo "Perform multiplication: 5 * 3 = ".$multiplication."<br />";
echo "Perform division: 15 / 3 = ".$division."<br />";
echo "Perform modulus: 5 % 2 = " . $modulus
. ". Modulus is the remainder after the division operation has been performed.
In this case it was 5 / 2, which has a remainder of 1.";
// O/P : Perform addition: 2 + 4 = 6
Perform subtraction: 6 - 2 = 4
Perform multiplication: 5 * 3 = 15
Perform division: 15 / 3 = 5
Perform modulus: 5 % 2 = 1. Modulus is the remainder after the division operation has been performed. In this case it was 5 / 2, which has a remainder of 1.

### Comparison Operators :

Comparisons are used to check the relationship between variables and/or values. If you would like to see a simple example of a comparison operator in action, check out our If Statement Lesson. Comparison operators are used inside conditional statements and evaluate to either true or false. Here are the most important comparison operators of PHP.

**Assume: $x = 4 and $y = 5;**

Operator |
Name |
Example |
Result |

== |
Equal To |
$x == $y |
false |

!= |
Not Equal To |
$x != $y |
true |

< |
Less Than |
$x < $y |
true |

> |
Greater Than |
$x > $y |
false |

<= |
Less Than or Equal To |
$x <= $y |
true |

>= |
Greater Than or Equal To |
$x >= $y |
false |

### String Operators :

The period **"."** is used to add two strings together, or more technically, the period is the concatenation operator for strings.

CODE/PROGRAM/EXAMPLE

//PHP Code:
$a_string = "Hello";
$another_string = " Billy";
$new_string = $a_string . $another_string;
echo $new_string . "!";
// O/P : Hello Billy!

### Pre/Post-Increment & Pre/Post-Decrement :

This may seem a bit absurd, but there is even a shorter shorthand for the common task of adding 1 or subtracting 1 from a variable. To add one to a variable or **"increment"** use the **"++"** operator:

- $x++; Which is equivalent to $x += 1; or $x = $x + 1;

To subtract 1 from a variable, or "decrement" use the "--" operator:

- $x--; Which is equivalent to $x -= 1; or $x = $x - 1;

In addition to this "shorterhand" technique, you can specify whether you want the increment to before the line of code is being executed or after the line has executed. Our PHP code below will display the difference.

CODE/PROGRAM/EXAMPLE

//PHP Code:
$x = 4;
echo "The value of x with post-plusplus = " . $x++;
echo "<br /> The value of x after the post-plusplus is " . $x;
$x = 4;
echo "<br />The value of x with with pre-plusplus = " . ++$x;
echo "<br /> The value of x after the pre-plusplus is " . $x;
//O/P : The value of x with post-plusplus = 4
The value of x after the post-plusplus is = 5
The value of x with with pre-plusplus = 5
The value of x after the pre-plusplus is = 5

As you can see the value of **$x++** is not reflected in the echoed text because the variable is not incremented until after the line of code is executed. However, with the pre-increment **"++$x"** the variable does reflect the addition immediately.